More About FUNdamentals

Fundamental movement skills provide a solid base for children to learn and adapt to new sports, physical activities or environments. They include basic skills such as running, jumping, throwing, catching, and kicking. The FUNdamentals form the basis of physical literacy. 

The table below lists a wide variety of fundamental movements and skills that make up physical literacy. These skills relate to four different environments: earth, water, air and ice.

Travelling Skills Object Control Skills Balance Movements
  • Boosting
  • Climbing
  • Eggbeater
  • Galloping
  • Gliding
  • Hopping
  • Ice Picking
  • Jumping
  • Leaping
  • Poling
  • Running
  • Sculling
  • Skating
  • Sliding
  • Swimming
  • Swinging
  • Wheeling


  • Kicking
  • Punting
  • Rolling (ball)
  • Strike (ball, pick, ring)
  • Throwing
  • Catching


  • Catching
  • Stopping
  • Trapping

Travelling with:

  • Dribbling (feet)
  • Dribbling (hands)
  • Dribbling (stick)

Receiving and Sending

  • Striking (bat)
  • Striking (stick)
  • Volleying


  • Balancing/Centring
  • Body Rolling
  • Dodging
  • Eggbeater
  • Floating
  • Landing
  • Read Position
  • Sinking/Falling
  • Spinning
  • Stopping
  • Stretching/Curling
  • Swinging
  • Twisting/Turnin

Three sports are especially good for developing the FUNdamentals: athletics, gymnastics and swimming.

Athletics teaches children to run, wheel, jump and throw. Gymnastics builds the ABCs of athleticism – Agility, Balance, Coordination, and Speed. Swimming is the foundation for all water-based sports, and it also helps children to become safe in and around water.

>> Learn about the next key factor: Specialization