Ten Key Factors

The LTAD model emerges from 10 key factors relating to human development, training, and sport system management. These factors are based on current research in sport and exercise science and on observed best practices in athlete training and coaching.

The LTAD stages have been defined according to 10 Key Factors that have been identified for successful athlete development. These Factors relate to processes of human maturation and how these processes interact with training, competition and recovery program design through the athlete’s lifetime.

  1. The 10-Year Rule
  2. The FUNdamentals
  3. Specialization
  4. Developmental Age
  5. Trainability
  6. Physical, Mental, Cognitive and Emotional Development
  7. Periodization
  8. Calendar Planning for Competition
  9. System Alignment and Integration
  10. Continuous Improvement

The Key Factors have been gleaned from the most current research in sport science, together with observed best practices in training, competition and coaching around the world.

While LTAD is based on the best coaching practices and sport science and research, coaching practices and science continue to evolve.  Furthermore, sport science and research is less developed for athletes with disabilities than for able-bodied athletes. Ongoing research is needed in this area.